Location information (positioning) via GSM

if a rapidM2M module obtains position via GSM network:

  1. will the position of the base station - where the device is registered to - used as the “position” of the rapidM2M module
    oder
  2. will the position be calculated via triangulation of 3 or more base stations to find a more accurate position? What if only 2 base stations are found?

The calculation of the position of a device includes all cells which are in reach, not only the cell which it is communicating with. Depending on the number of cells the precision of the position may vary. The position will be calculated down to two cells. If there is only one cell, it depends if the position of the cell is marked as “trusted”, in this case the device position will just be the position of this cell, otherwise no device position will be available.

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What is the most accurate and the least accurate radius you can get with GSM positioning?

The worst case is, when the position of the cells are not (yet) known, there is a fallback to the MCC (Mobile Country Code) which leads to a precision circle radius of a whole country.
Otherwise the precision circle radius will be calculated by averaging the distance of the known cells. If the cells are very close like in urban areas, the circle will be smaller.

Could it be detected if a device was moving inside a position circle? Let’s say a device would be installed in a place and can be located in a position circle with 500m radius. If the device would be taken and moved 250m away, would the next position be different?

The precision circle specifies the area in which the device is located. The center of the circle has therefor no meaning, it is just the center of the possible locations of the device. If the device moves less than the precision, we can not differentiate between real moves of the device or just changes in signal strength or other network related parameters.